By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development
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Extra info for A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control
In this way, a histogram or spectrum may be plotted relating Radiation Safety Officer's Handbook pulse height to the number of pulses having that height. The multichannel analyser automatically sorts the incoming pulses according to size and stores and displays the spectrum. Since the height of any incoming pulse is proportional to the energy deposited by the gamma ray that caused it, and the number of pulses per unit time is a measure of radiation intensity, this is also an energy spectrum. Note that the energy registered is the energy imparted to an electron when the gamma ray interacts in the crystal via the Compton or photoelectric effects.
Activity: The "strength� of a radioactive source, in terms of the number of nuclear transformations occurring per second. I. Unit is the becquerel (Bq), and the old unit is the curie (Ci). Exposure: A measure of the amount of ionization produced in air by photons (x and gamma rays). I. unit is the coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) and the old unit is the rontgen (R). Exposure rate constant: The exposure rate 1 meter from a 1 becquerel source of a specified radionuclide. I. m2. Absorbed Dose: The amount of radiation energy absorbed per unit mass of a target material.
For our purposes, range is the same as depth of penetration. For radiation safety purposes, the following consequences of neutron interactions are important: for beta, path length = sum of segments 1. neutrons can make a target material radioactive. β− 2. g. water, paraffin wax. range α++ 3. neutrons can produce reaction products which cause high density ionizations. The biological effects of neutron irradiation are complex, and less well understood than those of beta or gamma rays. Many other kinds of ionizing radiation exist, mostly due to human intervention.