By Erik Boot
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Extra resources for A Short Itza Maya Vocabulary
Are often lenited in two ways. Firstly, a full oral closure is not made. Secondly, modal voicing is delayed for some or all of the segment, and phonation is breathy instead. 7) above. ]) modal voicing is absent and a nasal zero can be seen rising from ~1000Hz to ~1300Hz, which is consistent with expectations for a nasal vowel (or semivowel) that precedes a nasal stop (Stevens 2000:303–22). / are also on par with what one would expect for a high back vowel (compare their height with the height of the formants in the final vowel, /u/), though F1 is lowered and rises with the nasal zero, again as expected for a nasalised (semi-)vowel.
In some case, two hyphens follow one another — this indicates that an underlying morph has been unrealised at the surface. 32 (11-27). Examples from Stephen Wurm’s 1960 corpus are identified as [W1960]. Time alignment and speaker identification data are not displayed, but in the metadata deposited with these corpora (and available from the author on request) each example sentence is transcribed orthographically, and so can be retrieved easily with a text-based search; all transcriptions are time-aligned to audio recordings and associated with speaker metadata.
4) (d) (a) /INPUT/ ! 4a) from highest ranking at the left to lowest ranking at the right. 4b). 4c). ’ symbol pointing to it. 4e). 4f); if a candidate fully satisfies a constraint, no numeral is entered. 4): for ‘W’, the number of violations incurred by the winner is less than the number incurred by the loser; for ‘L’ the number is greater, and for blank, the number is equal). Most importantly, the distribution of W’s and L’s in a comparative tableau highlight the relevance possessed by individual losing candidates, for the ranking of various constraints.