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Near-Earth operation is limited to low concentrations (five suns) because of the difficulty in removing excess heat from the arrays. However, for far-Sun missions, lightweight concentrators have been used successfully to increase the low intensity and low temperatures leading to higher solar array output. 5 Adapting to a Variety of Missions Contact AR AR n+-GaAs Window: n-AIInP Emitter: n-GaInP Top cell Base: p-GaInP BSF: p-AIGaAs Tunnel diode TD: p++-AIGaAs TD: n++-GaInP Window: n-AlGaAs All solar cells can be modified to perform a wide range of different space missions, but the TJ cells have proved to be most effective.

Between avoiding high voltages to reduce corrosion and occasionally overcharging the battery to reduce sulfation). Charge controllers should have a low internal consumption, high efficiency (96–98%), and make reverse poling impossible. They should withstand overvoltages (at least twice the open circuit voltage of the solar generator) and ambient temperatures of 0–501C. Some charge controllers use DC/DC converters to adapt PV module and battery voltage. They can also perform active MPP tracking, whereas with most charge regulators the PV module is operated at the level of the actual battery voltage.

M. (1976). History of silicon solar cells. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-23, 640–643. Photovoltaic Energy: Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Systems TIM MEYER Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE Freiburg, Germany 1. Applications of Photovoltaic Systems and Markets 2. System Concepts and Special Aspects 3. Components of PV Systems small appliances, such as pocket calculators and watches. Because of lower prices of PV modules and growing experience in PV system design, higher power ranges have become technically and economically viable.

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