By Jochen Kämpf
This ebook introduces the reader to complex equipment utilized in the computer-based modelling of fluid techniques. This comprises nonhydrostatic methods resembling breaking inner waves and density-driven convection, however the version code can be used to simulate an El-Niño occasion! The booklet comprises 25 sensible routines, utilizing freely to be had Open-Source software program suites, that are generic by way of the medical group. during this booklet, the artwork of hydrodynamic modelling is made to be had and obvious to a much wider readership. an enticing byproduct of the e-book is that effects are animations instead of nonetheless photographs. version codes and animation scripts for all workouts are provided on an internet site. The reader can undertake version codes for personal autonomous studies
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Extra info for Advanced Ocean Modelling: Using Open-Source Software
Does the model yield the same result? If not, explore the timeaverage values of the results and consider what you have learned about inertial oscillations. 1 Boundary-Layer Equations A bottom Ekman layer develops owing to frictional effects experienced by a flow in contact with the sea floor. For simplicity, this ambient (geostrophic) flow of vector components u geo and vgeo is assumed to be horizontally uniform and the sea floor is assumed to be plane. 21) where uˆ = u − u geo and vˆ = v − vgeo are flow variations with respect to the ambient flow.
18) can be formulated in two separate steps. In the first step, a first-guess velocity is calculated explicitly from values known at time level n. In the second step, the pressure 28 3 Basics of Nonhydrostatic Modelling correction Δq is calculated implicitly from the requirement that the new velocity field has to be free of divergence according to Eq. 17). 21) where i and k are the cell references for the Arakawa C-grid (see Fig. 3). 23) Insertion of the latter equations in the continuity equation (Eq.
12) suggests that the amplitude of pressure fluctuations at a depth of 100 m are only 4% compared with that at the surface. Pressure fluctuations are therefore expected to decrease rapidly with depth being the sole effect of nonhydrostatic dynamics. 05 s is chosen for adequate resolution of the forcing period. The total simulation time is 100 secs with data outputs at every second of the simulation. 001 Pa. The reader is encouraged to vary these values. 3 Results The predicted wave pattern attains a wavelength of approximately 100 m, which is in excellent agreement with theory (Fig.