By David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)
For a while now, i've got felt that the time is correct to put in writing a booklet approximately desktop Chess. Ever because the first makes an attempt at chess seasoned gramming have been made, a few twenty 5 years in the past, curiosity within the topic ha"s grown from yr to yr. through the overdue Fifties the topic used to be first delivered to the eye of the general public via a piece of writing in Scient(fic American, and no more than a decade later a chess application was once competing in a event with people. extra lately, there were tournaments within which the one contributors have been laptop courses. and while the 1st global machine Championship was once held in Stockholm in 1974 the development used to be an excellent luck. Laymen usually doubt the price of making an investment in a subject matter so esoteric as desktop chess, yet there's certainly enormous gain to be received from a research of the automisation of chess and different highbrow video games. If it proves attainable to play such video games good through laptop, then the innovations hired to examine and investigate destiny positions in those video games may also be invaluable in different difficulties in long-range making plans. i've got attempted to make this ebook either fascinating and instructive. those that comprehend something in any respect approximately chess yet who've no wisdom of desktops, can be in a position to keep on with my description of ways desktops play chess. people with a data of either components will nonetheless locate a lot to curiosity them.
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Additional resources for All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers
If a player's pieces and pawns control the centre then some of his pieces will eventually be able to occupy strong central posts and from the centre a piece exercises more mobility than it does from (say) the edge of the board. It is therefore a good idea to find some way of weighting the squares on the board in such a way as to make central squares more attractive to a program than edge or corner squares. We could weight each of the squares of the board according to how many moves could be made from that square when various pieces are placed there.
Turing's earliest thoughts on the subject of computer chess date from 1944, when he discussed some of his ideas with various friends The Early History of Computer Chess 45 and colleagues. d D. G. Champernowne devised a one move analyser called the TU ROCHAMP and at the same time Donald Michie and S. Wylie designed a rival analyser named MACHIAVELLI. These analysers were sufficient to enable their creators to simulate the play of a computer that was searching to a depth of one-ply. They simply calculated, by hand, the scores associated with all the positions at a depth of one and then made the move leading to the position with the highest score.
After about fifteen moves Kruskal had not recouped any material and had even started calling his opponent 'he' instead of 'it'. As the game progressed it appeared that Dr. Kruskal might lose. but around move nineteen the program chose a weak continuation and Kruskal was able to win its queen by threatening mate. After the program had been forced to give up its queen for a pawn it had no chance. The program was then matched against a young laay member of the laboratory who had been taught to play chess one week earlier with the express intention of playing against MANIAC.