Download e-book for kindle: An Environmental History of Ancient Greece and Rome by Lukas Thommen

By Lukas Thommen

In historic Greece and Rome an ambiguous courting built among guy and nature, and this decisively decided the way during which they handled the surroundings. at the one hand, nature was once conceived as an area characterised and inhabited by means of divine powers, which deserved applicable admire. at the different, a rationalist view emerged, in response to which people have been to subdue nature utilizing their applied sciences and to do away with its assets. This publication systematically describes the ways that the Greeks and Romans intervened within the atmosphere and hence lines the historical past of the stress among the exploitation of assets and the safety of nature, from early Greece to the interval of past due antiquity. while it analyses the great starting up of the Mediterranean and the northern frontier areas, either for payment and for financial task. The book's point and strategy make it hugely available to scholars and non-specialists.

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The figure reveals that the failure time tF∗ becomes longer with decreasing σa . Table 4: Values of constants gij , hi , ωi in eqn (50). 20 44 Fracture and Damage of Composites Figure 15: Functions fi of a∗ /w. Figure 16: Failure time against average far-field tensile stress σa for (0/90)5 cross-ply GFRP composite laminates. Figure 17 shows the diagram of failure time tF∗ for a0∗ and θ0 at σa = 25 MPa. It can be recognized from the figure that the larger the sizes of the pre-existing macroscopic edge crack on the surfaces of 0◦ plies and inherent surface flaws of glass fibers, the shorter the failure time of the (0/90)5 cross-ply GFRP composite laminates.

As can be seen from the figure, the macroscopic crack propagation rate da∗ /dt increases with the apparent stress intensity factor for opening mode at the macroscopic crack tip KI∗ . Moreover, the larger the size of inherent surface flaws of glass fibers, the higher the macroscopic crack propagation rate. If the apparent stress intensity factor is experimentally set over a small range, log(da∗ /dt) is observed to be essentially linear with log KI∗ . This means that the relationship between the macroscopic crack propagation rate da∗ /dt and the apparent stress intensity factor KI∗ is represented by a simple power law of the form of eqn (1).

On the other hand, substituting eqns (42) and (43) into the characteristic equation, eqn (19), derived for the particular mode of stability loss within the most accurate approach (fig. 1), a transcendental equation is deduced. For each of the modes we have a different characteristic equation in terms of two variables, λ1 (shortening factor) and αr (normalized wavelength). After some 18 Fracture and Damage of Composites transformations, the characteristic equation becomes: – for the 1st mode (fig.

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