By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Assessment Committee
Expanding renewable power improvement, either in the usa and out of the country, has rekindled curiosity within the power for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) assets to give a contribution to electrical energy new release. those assets derive from ocean tides, waves, and currents; temperature gradients within the ocean; and free-flowing rivers and streams. One degree of the curiosity within the attainable use of those assets for electrical energy new release is the expanding variety of allows which have been filed with the Federal strength Regulatory fee (FERC). As of December 2012, FERC had issued four licenses and eighty four initial allows, up from almost 0 a decade in the past. even though, every one of these allows are for advancements alongside the Mississippi River, and the particular profit discovered from all MHK assets is intensely small. the 1st U.S. advertisement gridconnected venture, a tidal venture in Maine with a potential of under 1 megawatt (MW), is at the moment supplying a fragment of that strength to the grid and is because of be absolutely put in in 2013.
As a part of its review of MHK assets, DOE requested the nationwide examine Council (NRC) to supply particular reviews. In reaction, the NRC shaped the Committee on Marine Hydrokinetic power know-how evaluation. As directed in its assertion of job (SOT), the committee first constructed an intervening time record, published in June 2011, which fascinated with the wave and tidal source checks (Appendix B). the present record comprises the committee's overview of all 5 of the DOE source different types in addition to the committee's reviews at the total MHK source review technique. This precis specializes in the committee's overarching findings and conclusions relating to a conceptual framework for constructing the source checks, the aggregation of effects right into a unmarried quantity, and the consistency throughout and coordination among the person source exams. reviews of the person source review, extra dialogue of the sensible MHK source base, and overarching conclusions and suggestions are defined in An assessment of the U.S. division of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic source Assessment.
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Additional info for An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments
3 K. Haas, Z. M. Fritz, and L. Jiang, Georgia Tech Research Corporation, “Assessment of tidal stream energy potential for the United States,” Presentation to the committee on February 8, 2011. org/, Accessed June 21, 2011. htm, Accessed June 21, 2011. html, Accessed June 21, 2011. S. Neary, K. Stewart, and B. Smith, Virginia Polytechnical Institute, “Validation of tidal current resource assessment,” Presentation to the committee on February 8, 2011. 2-3 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.
The effect of the turbines is represented as a drag in addition to any natural friction. As the additional drag is increased, the power also increases at first, but the currents inside the turbine region decrease as the flow is diverted and, as in other situations, there is a point at which the extracted power starts to decrease. The maximum power obtainable from the turbine array depends strongly on the local fluid dynamics of the area of interest. Generally, for an array larger than a few kilometers in water shallower than a few tens of meters, the maximum obtainable power will be approximately half the natural frictional dissipation of the undisturbed flow in the region containing the turbines.
The power density maps presented by the group are primarily applicable to single turbines or to a limited number of turbines that would not result in major back effects on the currents. Additionally, errors of up to 30 percent for estimating tidal currents translate into potential errors of a factor of more than 2 for estimating potential power. Because the 2-7 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments Prepublication Draft – Subject to Further Editorial Correction cost of energy for tidal arrays is very sensitive to resource power density, this magnitude of error would be quite significant from a project-planning standpoint.