Download PDF by Carol Hegarty: Analogies Teacher's Notes + Answer Key (Analogies)

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Example text

Criterion-related validity is also relevant for the Association of Language Testing in Europe (ALTE) foreign language (FL) examinations, but in this case the development of the five-level system, benchmarked to specific performance criteria at each level, provides the external criterion. It is this ‘level’ system, which provides the interpretative frame of reference for all the exams in the suite. , in writing or speaking). In the case of predictive validity, it may be that in certain circumstances the predictive power of the instrument is all that is of interest.

As with other Cambridge main suite examinations, the candidates for any particular examination represent a narrow range of ability and this effectively limits estimates of internal consistency reliability. TOEFL and IELTS attract a much wider ability range. CPE is sat by a truncated sample of candidates. There is a further serious question which might be asked of internal consistency estimates and which takes us back to the earlier reliability/validity debate. Would we want a high internal consistency estimate in all cases?

Similarly, Messick (1996: 247) questioned whether ‘the scores have utility for the proposed purposes in the applied After the Test Event: A Posteriori Validity Evidence 39 settings. ’ Weir (2001) points out that in recent years there has been an unfortunate tendency to link language testing to summative evaluation; as a result, the important formative capacity of testing in the classroom has often been overshadowed. The increased expectation that providers of educational services should be made accountable to external bodies for the impact of their work has been a powerful driving force behind this.

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