By Gerd Nonneman
Within the post-9/11 weather, the function of center jap and North African (MENA) states in Europe’s neighborhood protection atmosphere and foreign politics has turn into greater than ever a spotlight for realization, yet is still ill-understood. This booklet presents a framework for the research of center jap overseas rules normally, and for figuring out those states’ relatives with Europe particularly. The e-book fills a spot within the literature on Euro-Middle jap kinfolk by means of adopting a south-to-north standpoint, utilizing the instruments of international coverage research to ascertain the determinants of the overseas rules of the MENA states themselves: simply hence can one desire to reach at a real knowing of what underlies those states’ evolving coverage orientations and behavior in the direction of Europe. the quantity begins via laying out a conceptual framework for research, and interpreting the household, nearby, and foreign environments that MENA overseas rules. genuine coverage output is then systematically investigated via a variety of state case stories starting from the Maghreb and the Mashreq to the Gulf and Turkey. Europe is taken care of all through either as a goal of these international regulations, and as a part of the surroundings that shapes them. the results of a two-year venture backed through the ecu collage Institute’s Mediterranean Programme, the booklet is helping bridge the divide among heart East services and the self-discipline of diplomacy. The systematic comparative research of MENA states’ international coverage with detailed connection with Europe throws new gentle on questions about ‘Third international’ international coverage.
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Extra info for Analysing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies: The Relationship With Europe
Differential attitudes to outside powers. THE THREE ENVIRONMENTS OF MENA FOREIGN POLICY 3. 4. 25 National security interests/raison d’e´tat – in economic, military security, and territorial terms. The interests of rulers/ruling families (including dynastic rivalries). For the GCC states in particular, the two key driving concerns in their regional foreign policy have been external and domestic security. For the former, three means have been pursued: external protectors; collective security within the GCC; and the ‘management’ of regional relations through cautious diplomacy (including ‘riyal-politik’).
Instead, EU agendas and structures have remained central, with southern Mediterranean states essentially acceding to, modestly amending, or rejecting EU initiatives and formats. The recognition shown in EU policy documents since 2003 (from the New Neighbourhood policy to the paper on strengthening relations with the Arab world) of the need to address this and foster a greater sense of ‘ownership’ on the part of the southern partner countries, seems unlikely to reverse the underlying situation. 45 Sub-regional Approaches For reasons of space I will not comment further here on the sub-regional European initiatives towards the Maghreb, Mashreq and Arab–Israeli theatre, already mentioned earlier, beyond pointing out the increased attention given to them from the 1980s, and the subsequent revival of the more global approach; this revival did not, however, mean the end of sub-regional initiatives.
48 MENA STATES’ FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS EUROPE: SUMMARY FEATURES The results of the factors and environments discussed above, for MENA states’ policies towards Europe, are several. I would suggest they can be summarized as follows: 1. They are pragmatic rather than ideological. 2. They are based in the ﬁrst place on a view of Europe as a source of economic resources (markets, aid, investment) and technology. 3. Nevertheless, some constraint continues to be imposed by the Palestine issue and its ‘Arab’ and ‘Muslim’ echoes; this is heightened when perceptions of increasing US hegemony combine with crisis in the Israeli– THE THREE ENVIRONMENTS OF MENA FOREIGN POLICY 4.