By John Marshall
For complicated undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in atmospheric, oceanic, and weather technology, surroundings, Ocean and weather Dynamics is an introductory textbook at the circulations of the ambience and ocean and their interplay, with an emphasis on international scales. it is going to provide scholars a great take hold of of what the ambience and oceans seem like at the large-scale and why they give the impression of being that manner. The position of the oceans in weather and paleoclimate can also be mentioned. the mix of observations, conception and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments units this article aside via making it available to scholars without previous education in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical point that's attractive for undergraduates andbeginning graduate scholars* presents an invaluable academic software via a mix of observations andlaboratory demonstrations which might be considered over the net* includes directions on how one can reproduce the straightforward yet informativelaboratory experiments* comprises copious difficulties (with pattern solutions) to aid scholars research thematerial.
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Extra info for Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text
Modified from Hartmann, 1994. 5. The albedo of the Earth’s surface. Over the ocean the albedo is small (2–10%). 2). Equating Eq. 2-1 with Eq. 2-3 gives Te = S0 (1 − αp ) 4σ 1/4 . (2-4) Note that the radius of the Earth has cancelled out: Te depends only on the planetary albedo and the distance of the Earth from the Sun. Putting in numbers, we find that the Earth has an emission temperature of 255 K. 1 lists the various parameters for some of the planets and compares approximate measured values, Tm , with Te computed from Eq.
5. PROBLEMS 1. At present the emission temperature of the Earth is 255 K, and its albedo is 30%. How would the emission temperature change if: (a) the albedo was reduced to 10% (and all else were held fixed)? (b) the infrared absorptivity of the atmosphere ( in Fig. 8) was doubled, but albedo remained fixed at 30%? 2. Suppose that the Earth is, after all, flat. Specifically, consider it to be a thin circular disk (of radius 6370 km), orbiting the Sun at the same distance as the Earth; the planetary albedo is 30%.
Where does convection occur? 7. 8. 9. Problems We learned in Chapters 2 and 3 that terrestrial radiation emanates to space primarily from the upper troposphere, rather than the ground; much of what radiates from the surface is absorbed within the atmosphere. The surface is thus warmed by both direct solar radiation and downwelling terrestrial radiation from the atmosphere. In consequence, in radiative equilibrium, the surface is warmer than the overlying atmosphere. However, this state is unstable to convective motions that develop, as sketched in Fig.